The hiring process is an integral part of human resource management (HRM). Of course, before you can attract top talent, you need to define the job. This procedure, referred to as a “job analysis,” helps simplify and fine-tune the pre-employment phase. So, we’ve created this article to serve as a comprehensive guide to conducting a job analysis. We’ll discuss all aspects involved in the process while sharing some useful tips and best practices.
What Is a Job Analysis in HRM?
A job analysis involves systematically examining and analyzing work roles. This procedure is necessary for identifying the skill requirements and duties of a particular job. Moreover, it determines the kind of talent needed in a role. HR practitioners create job specifications and descriptions, which they use in the recruitment process. They also use the information when selecting and compensating candidates. What’s more, the details are instrumental in training and performance appraisals.
What Is the Importance of Doing a Job Analysis?
When assessing the resources necessary for a role, HR practitioners must perform a job analysis. It also helps in developing the strategies needed to achieve the objectives and goals of a business. For an organization to become successful, it needs to develop effective employee role descriptions. They will serve as communication tools that will attract and retain the right talent.
A job description must contain all the details related to the responsibilities and duties that come with a particular role. Meanwhile, a job specification lists the qualities, qualifications, knowledge, and skills that a person needs to be able to do a particular job. So, conducting a job analysis enables the employer or recruiter to gain a deep insight into the vacant role. This way, they can easily find candidates who have the required qualifications.
One of the objectives of a job analysis is determining whether an individual needs training. By understanding the core responsibilities and duties of a role, they can identify if an employee needs to expand their skill set. What’s more, conducting a job analysis provides the information needed in developing suitable training materials for a role.
Another core function of HRM is salary administration or compensation management. Factors like duties, skills, qualifications, and experience determine the salary for a particular role. These details can be acquired accurately by performing a job analysis.
Of course, objectives and goals are always part of an organization. In line with this, employees must maintain performance standards to ensure that they are contributing to a business’s growth. HR practitioners and managers can conduct a job analysis to know whether the outcome the workforce generates is in tune with the company’s objectives and goals. The process also entails determining evaluation criteria and the length of the probationary period.
Factors to Consider When Collecting Job Analysis Data
Before you start conducting a job analysis, there are various factors you need to consider. Here are some of them:
1#The Right Method for Collecting Data
When performing a job analysis, selecting the ideal data collection method is crucial. Your best bet is to choose one that works best for your company culture.
At times, respondents tend to exaggerate the complexity of their role and their skill set. Meanwhile, others tend to conceal details because they fear that the organization may suspect their competency. Both hiding facts and exaggerating details will lead to inaccurate data. So, the facilitator must ensure that this type of bias does not occur.
3#The Worries of the Respondents
Some respondents may look at a job analysis as something that the management may use to harm them in the long run. As such, it is crucial to alleviate such worries and fears to ensure the consistency and accuracy of data.
It’s natural for respondents to discuss certain aspects of their role. At the same time, they forget to consider other dimensions of their job. The job analysis facilitator must find a way to avoid such errors. They must guide the respondents in a way that will help them overcome such bias.
5#Dedication to the Process
For a job analysis to be successful, the top management, HR practitioners, and concerned employees must be dedicated to the entire process. So, proper communication and streamlining must be put in place.
How to Perform a Job Analysis as Part of HRM
An organization must take a step-by-step approach to performing a job analysis. Keep in mind that this process will generate a lot of data. The information you acquire will be instrumental in creating a list of competencies an individual needs to successfully carry out a role. Here are the steps in conducting a job analysis:
Step 1: Plan Carefully
The purpose of a job analysis is to acquire accurate data, and you cannot do that without careful planning. So, your team has to establish the specific steps to follow, the resources needed, and the people involved in the process. All these elements must be committed to the procedure and the time frame for completing the task. Careful planning will ensure that the job analysis is accurate and thorough.
Step 2: Collect and Assess all the Details about the Role
The next thing to do is conduct research on all the details of the duties involved in the role. Using internal and external sources, the team will acquire all the information they need, including job ads posted in the past, existing role descriptions, training materials, and performance plans, among others. They can also gather details about the job by consulting subject matter experts, industry data, online staffing resources, and performance standards. By using all types of resources, you can come up with a list of standardized criteria for job evaluation.
Step 3: Select Job Representatives
Choose a group of employees who are currently performing the duties that new hires will manage. Remember to use the standardized criteria you developed from the data you previously acquired. Moreover, the sample population must be dependent on the job’s complexity.
Step 4: Collect the Details about the Demographics of the Current Job Holders
You can collect demographic data in different ways. For instance, you can ask the job representatives to keep a performance log for evaluation. They must take note of how certain skills and experiences can be utilized in particular situations. You can also gather relevant data by observing the employees who are currently performing the job. Aside from that, you can conduct surveys and job sampling to generate data on the personal qualities required for a role.
Pro Tip: If you want a better understanding of the duties and responsibilities that a role covers, we recommend that you use a time tracker like Traqq. By using this tool, you will be able to monitor the tasks and activities that your sample job holders do on a daily basis. Traqq functions like a timesheet that logs the websites and apps that an employee uses.
Another way of gathering demographic data is by conducting structured interviews. You can collect relevant information, including the interviewee’s experience, level of education, personal skills, and qualifications. People currently holding the job can be asked questions related to the role. Keep in mind that you should follow a structured approach when collecting employees’ answers.
Step 5: Collect Details from the Supervisors of the Job Holders
You can also get useful information about the role’s requirements and objectives by asking the job holders’ supervisors. They will have first-hand knowledge of individuals who were unsuccessful in their roles and those who exceeded expectations. Remember to maintain consistency in the interviews, especially if multiple supervisors are involved.
Step 6: Collect Details from Senior Managers
At this point, you need to use a more strategic approach to gathering information. You need to ask yourself how the role will contribute to the general success of the organization. For instance, if you’re hiring for a contact center position, you must know the importance of maintaining a positive reputation with clients. Senior managers will give you an insight into how every individual role within a unit or department can affect the entire company.
Step 7: Develop an Initial List of Job Skills and Competencies
When you get to this phase, you will have collected a large amount of data and information. As such, it is time to create a list of competencies that the role requires to ensure success. Job competencies involve measurable behaviors that determine how a worker will perform once they are hired. The information will include duties, tasks, responsibilities, abilities, and skills. Basically, it will mention essential characteristics for ensuring successful job performance.
Step 8: Finalize the List of Job Skills and Competencies
The last step is to evaluate and validate the competencies to create a final list. There are various ways to use this set. Your team can utilize it in supporting pre-hire assessment tests, developing a job description, and recruiting candidates, among others.
A job analysis is an integral component of HRM and, ultimately, an organization’s success. However, to ensure its efficiency, you need to take a structured approach to conducting it. Moreover, you must gather all the resources, tools, and manpower necessary to complete it.